Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
Allahumma Salle â€˜Ala Syedina Muhammadin Wa â€˜Ala Aalihi Syedina Muhammadin Wa Barik Wa Sallim.
Topic : Shirk Shirk Shirk Fitna by Misguided people in the ummah – (See Bukhari & Muslim )
Recap of Important Points during the Ziyarah Mubarak of Martyrs of Uhuds from Haidth e Bukhari Shareef and Muslim Shareef.
Point No. 1.
â€œ There will be No Shirk in My ummah I fear only you will fell in duniya â€œ, these are words of beloved Prophet Hazrat Syedina Muhammadar-rasool Allah ( Sal-lal-lahu alaihi wa sallam ) given in the Kutbah Mubarak after the ziyarat of martyrs of Uhud.
Also note there was pulpit ( Mimber ) which was carried and there was speech biyan given by Huzoor e kareem ( Sal-lal-lahu alaihi wa sallam ) and many Sahaba-e-Ikhram Rizwan allahi thaalah alaiheem ajmaeens were present in this mubarak occasion.
From these hadiths mubaraks of muslim shareef and bukhari Shareef it is clear that the urs e shareef of awliyas of the ummah which is also celebrated every year and biyans kept in the urs e shareef and people gathering etc is the sunnah of beloved prophet Hazrat Syedina Muhammadur Rasool Allah ( Sal-lal-lahu alaihi wa sallam ) and sahabas.
Also point to be noted is that the mazar e shareefs of martyrs were visited every year on the particular day of martyrdom. Thus Urs e shareef of awliyas is the sunnah. Lastly Huzoor e kareem Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam also
The Prophet went out and offered the funeral prayer for the martyrs of the (battle of) Uhud and then ascended the pulpit and said, “I am your predecessor and I am a witness against you. By Allah, I am now looking at my Tank-lake (Al-Kauthar) and I have been given the keys of the treasures of the earth (or the keys of the earth).
Now the Question arises here and Important Conclusion :
When beloved prophet hazrat syedina muhammadur rasool allah ( sal-lal-lahu alaihi wa sallam ) had announced and declared that there will be no shirk in my ummah and I fear only my ummah may fall in duniya. Is it right that now in the ummah muslims are blaming other muslims brothers as shirk doers. From here we can conclude that these people who are blaming other people as shirk doers are going agains the declaration and the wordings of the beloved prophet hazrat Syedina Muhammadur Rasool Allah ( Sal-lal-lahu alaihi wa sallam ). It is a gravesin and haram to patch any muslim as shirk doer from these hadith e mubaraks of Kutbas of Uhud.
Below are the hadith e shareefs Quotations from Sahih Muslims and Sahih Bukhari Shareef.
sahih bukhari book:maghaazi chapter:battle of uhud
sahih muslim book:fazail
sunan abu daud book:kitab-al-janaiz
musnad ahmed bin hanbal
Narrator: uqbah bin aamir(RadiAllahu anhu)
Prophet(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) prayed salah for martyres of uhud as he is saying farewell
to both dead and live ones.then he appeared in MIMBAR and said: i am your
leader,and i am witness over you,our place for meeting is HAUZ-E-KAUTHAR
and i am seeing hauz-e-kauthar from here and i have no fear about you
that after me you will fall in SHIRK but i fear you will fall in
WORLDLY LOVE.uqbah(RadiAllahu anhu) furthur said that day i saw prophet for last
sahih muslim book: fazail
Narrator: Uqbah bin aami(RadiAllahu anhu)
Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said : i have no fear that you people will fall in SHIRK but
i fear that you will be surrender yourself in love of WORLD and will
fight among yourselves and die like it has done by people before you.
Narrated ‘Uqba bin ‘Amir:
The Prophet went out and offered the funeral prayer for the martyrs of the (battle of) Uhud and then ascended the pulpit and said, “I am your predecessor and I am a witness against you. By Allah, I am now looking at my Tank-lake (Al-Kauthar) and I have been given the keys of the treasures of the earth (or the keys of the earth). By Allah! I am not afraid that after me you will worship others besides Allah, but I am afraid that you will start competing for (the pleasures of) this world.”
(Bukhari :: Book 8 :: Volume 76 :: Hadith 434 )
Now a days People call respecting graves as worship while Prophet صلی اللہ علیھ وآلھ وسلم had clearly stated that He صلی اللہ علیھ وآلھ وسلم has no fear of Shirk from this ummah:
â€™â€™حضرت عقبہ بن عامر رضی اللہ عنہ سے روایت ہے کہ حضور نبی اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے شہداءِ اُحد پر (دوبارہ) آٹھ سال بعد اس طرح نماز پڑھی گویا زندوں اور مُردوں کو الوداع کہہ رہے ہوں۔ پھر آپ صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم منبر پر جلوہ افروز ہوئے اور فرمایا : میں تمہارا پیش رو ہوں، میں تمہارے اُوپر گواہ ہوں، ہماری ملاقات کی جگہ حوضِ کوثر ہے اور میں اس جگہ سے حوضِ کوثر کو دیکھ رہا ہوں اور مجھے تمہارے متعلق اس بات کا ڈر نہیں ہے کہ تم (میرے بعد) شرک میں مبتلا ہو جاؤ گے بلکہ تمہارے متعلق مجھے دنیاداری کی محبت میں مبتلا ہو جانے کا اندیشہ ہے۔ حضرت عقبہ فرماتے ہیں کہ یہ میرا حضور نبی اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کا آخری دیدار تھا (یعنی اس کے بعد جلد ہی آپ صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کا وصال ہو گیا)۔ â€˜â€˜
البخاري في الصحيح، کتاب : المغازي، باب : غزوة أحد، 4 / 1486، الرقم : 3816،
This hadith is very important, Prophet صلی اللہ علیھ وآلھ وسلم knew that some fitna creator will
come in this ummah and they will declare visiting respecting Graves and Shrines as
worship and shirk, that is why Prophet صلی اللہ علیھ وآلھ وسلم while standing near graves and
Shrines of Shuhada-e-Uhad made it clear that He صلی اللہ علیھ وآلھ وسلم has no fear of shirk
from this Ummah.
â€™حضرت عقبہ بن عامر رضی اللہ عنہ سے مروی ہے کہ حضور نبی اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے فرمایا : بے شک میں تمہارا پیش رو
اور تم پر گواہ ہوں۔ بیشک خدا کی قسم! میں اپنے حوض (کوثر) کو اس وقت بھی دیکھ رہا ہوں اور بیشک مجھے زمین کے خزانوں کی
کنجیاں (یا فرمایا : زمین کی کنجیاں) عطا کر دی گئی ہیں اور خدا کی قسم! مجھے یہ ڈر نہیں کہ میرے بعد تم شرک کرنے لگو گے بلکہ
مجھے ڈر اس بات کا ہے کہ تم دنیا کی محبت میں مبتلا ہو جاؤ گے۔ â€˜
أخرجه البخاري في الصحيح، کتاب : المناقب، باب : علامات النَّبُوَّةِ فِي الإِسلام، 3 / 1317، الرقم : 3401.
Also Refer Such Related topics Related to Shirk & Bidah Fitna & doctrines started by Khawarijis and other misguided groups in the ummah
difference between tauheed and shirk part 1
difference between tauheed and shirk part 2
difference between tauheed and shirk part 3
Shirk and the veneration of Graves
BID’AH – Innovation in Islam
You can Listen to Numerous Top Speeches on this topic of Shirk and Biddah from the below link :
Shirk, Biddat Aur Tauheed ( Top Speeches Videos ) By Shaikh ul Islam
New Delhi:9th Aug’13
Jama Masjid and Fatehpuri Masjid committees have announced that Eid in India will be celebrated tomorrow on Friday 9th Aug ’13. Shahi Imam of the both historic Mosques have announced after receiving authentic news from various parts of other states.Mufti Mukarram Ahmed of Fatehpuri Mosque have declared that in India moon has been sighted in many parts including Mumbai,Rajasthan etc and after consultation and autnetic reports Shahadats Eid will be celebrated tomorrow.
In Fatehpuri Mosque large numbers of Muslims in and around Delhi participate in Eid Namaz.Childrens celebrates Eid with great enthusiasm and joy.
Dargah Ala Hazrat Bareilly Shareef based Markazi moon sighting committee has also done consultation and it is hoped that very soon Eid will be announced.
By: Abu Arif Al Alawi
Jazakallah for your questions. While we certainly answer questions on Islam and Comparative Religion which are related to Da’wah activities (Conveying the message of Islam to non-Muslims), we do not entertain queries on matters pertaining to Fiqh and Masaail, since our speciality is propagating Islam to non-Muslims i.e. matters pertaining to Islam and Comparative religion. Hence, we regret to inform you that since your questions are on Fiqh and Masaail, we request you to kindly address these questions to a specialist on Fiqh and Masaail.”
[Dr. SHUAIB SAYYED , Manager Research, Islam and comparative Religion, IRF]
1. Is kissing Rawza of Rasulullah ( other mazars also) shirk or not?
2. Is Taqlid of Imams shirk or not? If somebody makes taqlid of
a particular Imam, is he Mushrik or not?
3. Is Prayer to Allah through wassila of prophets and
awliyas shirk or not? If smebody prays through A prophet or an awliya,
should he be called Mushrik or not?
4. Is seeking help to a Prophet, awliya or any other pious
person shirk or not? If a person seeks help from a prophet or awliya ,
is he Mushrik or not?
5. If A man says to Rasulullah (pbuh) the following words,
what should be our view on him? Is he Mushrik or not?
” O Exceptional! Among those who can be depended on.
O Exceptional! Among those who can be depended upon to
O Exceptional! Among those whose generosity showers more than rain.
I indeed testify to the fact that at the time when my heart is
engulfed in this dilemma,
You are indeed the one who gives me assistance and consolation”.
6. If a man says to Rasulullah (pbuh) the following words,
what should be our view on him? Is he Mushrik or not?
” Ae mere aaqa, ae mare sahare, ae mere wasile,
sakhti aur narmi me mere kam aane wale,
Aap ke sewa mera koi nahi hain zis se madad mangi zaye
7. What about celabrating Miladunnabi? Is it Bidat as well as
shirk or not?
8. If somebody considers sufi Muhiuddin Ibne Arabi as Shaykhe
Akbar, is he Mushrik or not?
9. If someone believes in and supports the theory of Wahadatul
Wazud, is he Mushrik or not?
10. Some people says, not only Sahih Hadith but Zaif and
Hasan ahdith also are acceptable. What is your advice on this issue?
11. What is your view on Maulana Maududi, Dr Israr Ahmed and
Shaikh Ahmed Deedat ? They were pious and pride of Muslims or not?
12. Somebody says, you are Wahabi. I don’t know Who are wahabi?
Would tou kindly explain to me Wahabism?
13. What is your view on Dr Tahirul qadri? Is he reliable? Is
his Aqida in accordance with Quran & hadeeth?
14. I found in a website that Imam ahmed Raza Khan of Breilly
was a great Alim. Really was he a great Alim?
15. somebody says, Isal e Sawab is permissible. somebody says ,
it is bidah. what is your advice on it?
16. Should one offer namaz behind a person or get his sons and
daughters married to him or his family members who makes taqlid of a
particular Imam, prays to Allah through the wasila of Prophets or
Awliyas, addresses dead Prophets and Awliyas and seeks help from
them, believes in Wahadatul Wazud ?
I know, you are very busy. Yet, I hope you will
manage time to answer my questions and bring me out from the dillema
I have fallen to.
I’ve been a sincere reader of Dr Zakir Naik’s books and Shaykh
Ahmeed Deedat’s books from my tender age. I must say, Shaykh Deedat
always worked within his own limitation whereas Brother Naik always
loves to cross his limitation . Although I’ve been a great admirer of
his debating ability, I think, due to his arrogance and audacity he
has deviated from the path of Ahle Sunnat Wa zamaat.
You said, Fiqh and Massael is not his field. Then why is he attacking
the beliefs of Ahle Sunnat Wa Zamaat? why is he taunting the Fiqhi
differences among the four great School of thoughts?
In every issue against Ahle Sunnat Wa zamaat, he demands evidences
from Quran and Sahih Hadith but he himself presents all his cases only
with the help of logic and reason.’ If’ is his main weapon andwith the
word-game he tries to befool the audiences who is in the darkness of
In a reply to a Christian’s question he says, one who obeys Allah is
His son, not by birth but by obedience. Naik calls himself Allah’s son
as he obeys Him. What is it? How can he dare to utter such dangerous
words? Which verse of Al quran or which Hadith can he preesnt as
evidence in support of his strange views? This is not the only case .
In countless cases, he has uttered poisonous views, harmful for his
own as well as the listners’ Imaan.
He says, he only values Sahih Hadith. The status of sahih hadith
is definitely indisputable. But does the usule hadith say that Hasan
Hadith is rejectable ? Does usule hadith say that all types of Daeef
Hadithes are rejectable outright? If it is not Hadith rejection then
what is hadith rejection?
My request to Brother Naik is to dwell upon his Aqidah seriously,
make tawba and make necessary correction . It is in the interest of
himself as well as Muslim Ummah.
***** I am very humble person and always have been a well wisher
of Brother Naik. I don’t have the tiniest intention to hurt him or
Colombo ,Sri Lanka- Mudaasir Ameen
Zakir Naik faced hard questions on Tawassul or Waseela (intercession ), Following four Imams in matter of Jurisprudence or Taqleed and on the Life of Prophets in their graves in Sri Lanka by young Ahle Sunnah Scholars but could not answer any of the question.He tried to ignore the questions then he was handed over the letter for discussion.To utter surprise of all he could not answer the questions directly posed rather he answered wrongly and rejected Tawassul with out any source.
Person like Zakir Naik who hides their true Wahabi beliefs behind Hindu bashing has been exposed by these young Scholars.When he could not answer he said he will reply through Email but when he was reminded same questions were send via mail 4 years back he replied he can’t reply each and every mail as thousands of mails daily comes to his E-Mail adress.Watch the video for deatils-Questions are still opened and challenge is still on.
Is Zakir Naik listening ?
It is often alleged that Deobandi ideology is responsible for spread of terrorism in Pakistan so Darul Uloom Deoband which is mother of this ideology should try to do something to stop extremism and sectarian terrorism in the region.The allegations were once made by Pakistan’s permanent representative to UN General Assembly Mr.Abdullah Hussain Haroon.
He said that, I have come up very good suggestion.The clerics of Deoband who yields a great influence over NWFP of Pakistan and Federally Administered Tribal Areas.should come to Pakistan and issue Fatwa against suicide bombings and killing of Muslims in Pakistan as well as in India.
To this allegations Darul Uloom Deoband still has to react but when pressure build up on them they have organised public rallies in the name of fighting terrorism but we still have not witnessed any Deobandi prominent scholar visiting NWFP,Fata and Tribal areas and issuing Fatwa against terrorist organizations.
It must be remembered that major extremist and terrorist organizations of South Asia follows this ideology from Taliban to Sipah-e-Sahaba and from Lashkar-e-Jhangvi to Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan ,all are hardcore banned but functioning Deobandi terrorist organizations.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deobandi#Movements.also refer to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=koXb6pFIJHg
Not even a single declaration or a Fatwa is issued against these Takfiri terrorist organizations which kills citizens on daily basis.
Will they react?
22nd Jan 2012
Muslims around the country observed 93rd death anniversary of their leader Hazrat Imam Ahmed Raza Khan.Several thousands also came from outside country to attend the ceremony at dargah Ala Hazrat at bareilly city of Uttar pradesh.
Hazrat Akhtar Raza Khan Azhari Mian and Hazrat Subhan raza Khan Subhani Mian presided three day long Urs ceremony at Jamiaturaza and at Islamia Inter Colege field respectively.At least 10 lac Muslims attended the gathering and offered fateha and join Dua on last day of the celebration on 20th jan 2012 .
Sunni Leaders around the country spoke extensively about the contribution of this great Mujaddid and his pious son hazrat Mufti -e-Azam (R.A).
बरेली, जागरण संवाददाता : इस्लामियां इण्टर कॉलेज में हुई मुस्लिम स्टूडेंट आर्गेनाइजेशन ऑफ इंडिया की बैठक में तालीमी, मजहबी और नौजवानों से संबधित मुद्दों पर प्रस्ताव पास किया गया। इसे राष्ट्रपति, प्रधानमंत्री, मुख्यमंत्री को भेजने का फैसला लिया गया। बैठक में आला हजरत के नाम पर बरेली में मुस्लिम यूनिवर्सिटी बनाने की बात जोर-शोर से उठी। वहीं दरगाहों और खानकाहों की बेहतरी के लिए दरगाह एक्ट बनाकर पास किए जाने, जायरीनों की सहूलियतों और सुविधाओं के लिए कुम्भ मेला जैसी सुविधाएं देने, रुहेलखंड विवि में आला हजरत के नाम पर रिसर्च चेयर स्थापित करने, सुन्नी मुसलमानों की बेहतरी के लिए सरकारी कमीशनों, विभागों और बोर्डो में सुन्नी मुसलमानों की नियुक्ति करने, वक्फ बोर्ड में वहाबियों के चयन पर पाबंदी और वक्फ जायदारों से अवैध कब्जे खत्म करके सूफी सुन्नी मुसलमानों को सौंपे जानें, मुस्लिम रिजर्वेशन रंगानाथ मिश्रा कमीशन के आधार पर दिए जाने, सलमान रुश्दी को भारत आने से रोके जाने और देश भक्ति और अमन के बढ़ावे के लिए सूफी सुन्नी विचारधारा को प्रोत्साहन देने और वहाबी विचारधारा पर पाबंदी लगायी जाने की बात कही। बैठक में राष्ट्रीय सदस्य मौलाना अब्दुल जलील निजामी, राष्ट्रीय महासचिव शाहनवाज वारसी, राष्ट्रीय सदस्य मुहम्मद इमरान रजा, मुहम्मद इरशाद, अनीस शीराजी, मुहम्मद यासिर आदि मौजूद रहे।
Hujjut-ul Islam Imam al Ghazali (radi Allahu anh) wrote the Incoherence of the philosophers during a time of great confusion, where Muslims were presented with conflicting versions of Islam. I won’t go into too much detail regarding that period in history, but just want to mention parallels between his time and ours. Imam al Ghazali (radi Allahu anh) articulately, and successfully, defended the articles of faith against a tide of philosophical thinking that was based on incorrect and unscrupulous sets of thinking. Today, we have two camps who are challenging the orthodox traditions.
First are the liberals, who tend to avoid or shun certain religious practices and beliefs that do not fit within their pre-conceptualised secularist mindset. They support the western versions democracy, freedom, equality, etc.
Secondly, we have the Salafis/fundamentalists. They see everything in black and white. To them there is no compromise; no areas of discussion; no grey area. They do not tolerate much that does not fit within their framework of thought.
I want to ask these people a question. What do you make of this video?
If you do not feel sick after watching this, then shame on you. How much are we willing to sacrifice for so called freedom and democracy? What sort of Muslim, forget that; what sort of human being vandalises the grave of a deceased?
Go ahead and have your party. But remember, reality dictates that awareness of injustice is fruitless without sound grounding. Without the real understanding and application of Islam, nothing truly tangible will be achieved.
As a brother on a forum said, “some people ask why Sunnis cannot make peace and truce with Salafis…. here in this simple video is your answer”.
If you want to see real politics, then have a read of the this. We are nowhere near the standard of Sayyiduna Umar bin Abdul Aziz (radi Allahu anh).
New Delhi.14th Dec 2011
Alhamdulillah four Ahle Sunnah Scholars of India have been mentioned in the list of most influential Muslims of the world 2011 by Georgetown University.
Hazrat Akhtar Raza Khan Azhari Mian Qaudri have been ranked top most in India and 28th in the World where as Hazrat Syed Ameen Mian Qaudri, Shekh Aboobacker Ahmed and Allama Qamaruzzaman Khan Azmi have been mentioned with honour in the list.
Hazrat Mufti Akhtar Raza Khan is Supreme Mufti of India and is known as Janasheen of Hazrat Mustafa Raza Khan Mufti-e-Azam. He is founder and patron of numerous educational and religious organization and educational institutions remarkable among them is JamiaturRaza College, situated at Bareilly Shareef,U.P. Famous for his piousness and Jurisprudence he is one of the greatest person alive in the Sunni world. He has millions of followers around the world known as Azhari Qaudri .
Professor Sayid Ameen Mian Qaudri is leader of the Indian
Sunnis and a sajjada nashin, or Sufi disciple of the Barkatiya
Sufi tradition which stems from the Qadiriyyah tradition
of eminent Sufi master, ‘Abd al Qadir al Jilani (1077-1166 CE).
Counters Violence with Social Engagement A missionary movement, the Sunnis of the South Asian subcontinent have spread their message within the region and also among diaspora communities in Europe, North America, and South Africa.
Leader of Important Sufi Movement Qaudri is professor of Urdu language at India’s esteemed Aligarh Muslim University and also patron of several religious and social organizations prominent among them is Jamia Al Barkaat University at Aligarh and MSO of India, students and Youth body of Sunnis.
Another Sunni Leader Sheikh Aboobacker Ahmad of Sunni Markaz Kerala has also been mentioned with Honour for his contribution in changing the life of South Indian Muslims.
He is the leader of one of the traditionalist Sunni Muslims in Kerala state, India and is one of the most famous Muslim personalities in Kerala. Kanthapuram A. P. Aboobacker Musalyar is known for his expediency, which was not known among the Muslim scholars of Kerala. He is presently the General Secretary of All-India Sunni Jamiyyathul Ulama, the organisation Muslim scholars and clerics under A. P. Sunnis and Samastha Kerala Jamiyyathul Ulama (Kanthapuram). Kanthapuram A. P. Aboobacker Musalyar is also the General Secretary and Principal of Karanthur Markaz, a charitable and educational institution in Karanthur, Calicut, Kerala. He was appointed as a member of the NAC for the implementation of the RTÉ act in 2010.
His Eminence Huzoor Muffakir-e-Islam Hazrat Allama Maulana Qamaruzzaman Azmiis the Khalifa of His Holiness Mufti-e-Azam Hazrat Maulana Mustafa Raza Khan, the holy son of Imam Ahmed Raza Khan Qadri Barelwi (May Allah shower his mercy upon them) as well as Sarkar-e-Kalaa’n Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Mohammed Mukhtar Ashraf, Sajjada Nasheen of Kichow-Chah Shareef (May Allah shower his mercy upon him).General secretary of World Islamic Mission, Allama is most famous Sunni speaker in the world and is followed by millions of his followers in different countries.
His Eminence’s selfless missionary life spans nearly fifty-years. During this period, as the articles on this website highlight, he has helped to build many organisations and institutions all over the world such Mosques, colleges and universities in America, Canada, Holland, Germany, Norway, Belgium and India. Each institution is helping to make a difference to hundreds of lives throughout the world. For example, Al-Jamiatul Islamia in Raunahi alone saw four hundred Ulemas graduate in 2011. He has also been presented with hundreds of awards and certificates of appreciations including the recent Mufti-e-Azam Gold Medal Award by the famous Raza Academy in Mumbai where a collection of articles by scholars and key figures from the world on his selfless life and contributions were published in the book Tajal-liyat-e-Qamar.
All India Ulema and Mashaikh Board an apex body of Indian Sunni Sufi Muslims along with Muslim Students Organization of India MSO have congratulated Sunni world for this achievement and have expressed their pleasure.
Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, and peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets and Chief of the Messengers, and upon all his family and companions.
Allah’s sacred month of Muharram is a blessed and important month. It is the first month of the Hijri calendar and is one of the four sacred months concerning which Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so it was ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them, four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein … “ [Al-Qur'an 9:36]
Abu Bakrah, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said:
“The year is twelve months of which four are sacred, the three consecutive months of Dhu’l-Qa’dah, Dhu’l-Hijjah and Muharram, and Rajab Mudar which comes between Jumada and Sha’ban.” [Reported by al-Bukhari, 2958]
Muharram is so called because it is a sacred (muharram) month and to confirm its sanctity.
Allah’s words: “… so wrong not yourselves therein … “ mean do not wrong yourselves in these sacred months, because sin in these months is worse than in other months. It was reported that Ibn ‘Abbas said that this phrase referred to all the months, then these four were singled out and made sacred, so that sin in these months is more serious and good deeds bring a greater reward.
Qutadah said concerning this phrase that wrongdoing during the sacred months is more serious and more sinful that wrongdoing at any other time. Wrongdoing at any time is a serious matter, but Allah gives more weight to whichever of His commands He will. Allah has chosen certain ones of His creation. He has chosen from among the angels Messengers and from among mankind Messengers. He chose from among speech the remembrance of Him (dhikr). He chose from among the earth the mosques, from among the months Ramadhan and the sacred months, from among the days Friday and from among the nights Laylat al-Qadr, so venerate that which Allah has told us to venerate. People of understanding and wisdom venerate the things that Allah has told us to venerate. [Summarized from the Tafsir of Ibn Kathir, may Allah have mercy on him.]
THE VIRTUE OF OBSERVING MORE NAFIL FASTS DURING MUHARRAM
Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said:
“The best fasting after Ramadhan is fasting Allah’s month of Muharram.” [Reported by Muslim, 1982]
The phrase “Allah’s month”, connecting the name of the month to the name of Allah in a genitive grammatical structure, signifies the importance of the month. Al-Qari said:
“The apparent meaning is all of the month of Muharram.”
But it was proven that the Prophet, peace be upon him, never fasted any whole month apart from Ramadhan, so this hadith is probably meant to encourage increasing one’s fasting during Muharram, without meaning that one should fast for the entire month.
It was reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, used to fast more in Sha’ban. It is likely that the virtue of Muharram was not revealed to him until the end of his life, before he was able to fast during this month. [Sharh an-Nawawi 'ala Sahih Muslim]
ALLAH CHOOSES WHATEVER TIMES AND PLACES HE WILLS
Al-‘Izz ibn ‘Abdus-Salam, may Allah have mercy on him, said:
“Times and places may be given preferred status in two ways, either temporal or spiritual. With regard to the latter, this is because Allah bestows His generosity on His slaves at those times or in those places, by giving a greater reward for deeds done, such as giving a greater reward for fasting in Ramadhan than for fasting at all other times, and also on the day of ‘Ashura, the virtue of which is due to Allah’s generosity and kindness towards His slaves on that day … ” [Qawa'id al-Ahkam, 1/38]
‘ASHURA IN HISTORY
Ibn ‘Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, came to Madinah and saw the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Ashura. He asked:
“What is this?”
They said: “This is a righteous day, it is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemies, so Musa fasted on this day.” He said:
“We have more right to Musa than you,” so he fasted on that day and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day. [Reported by al-Bukhari, 1865]
“This is a righteous day” – in a report narrated by Muslim, [the Jews said:] “This is a great day, on which Allah saved Musa and his people, and drowned Pharaoh and his people.”
“Musa fasted on this day” – a report narrated by Muslim adds: ” … in thanksgiving to Allah, so we fast on this day.”
According to a report narrated by al-Bukhari: ” … so we fast on this day to venerate it.”
A version narrated by Imam Ahmad adds: “This is the day on which the Ark settled on Mount Judi, so Nuh fasted this day in thanksgiving.”
” … and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day” – according to another report also narrated by al-Bukhari, he said to his Companions:
“You have more right to Musa than they do, so fast on that day.”
The practice of fasting on ‘Ashura was known even in the days of Jahiliyyah, before the Prophet’s mission. It was reported that ‘Aishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said:
“The people of Jahiliyyah used to fast on that day … “
“Perhaps the Quraysh used to fast on that day on the basis of some past law, such as that of Ibrahim, upon whom be peace.”
It was also reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, used to fast on ‘Ashura in Makkah, before he migrated to Madinah. When he migrated to Madinah, he found the Jews celebrating this day, so he asked them why, and they replied as described in the hadith quoted above. He commanded the Muslims to be different from the Jews, who took it as a festival, as was reported in the hadith of Abu Musa, may Allah be pleased with him, who said:
“The Jews used to take the day of ‘Ashura as a festival [according to a report narrated by Muslim: the day of 'Ashura was venerated by the Jews, who took it as a festival. According to another report also narrated by Muslim: the people of Khaybar (the Jews) used to take it as a festival and their women would wear their jewellery and symbols on that day]. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said:
‘So you [Muslims] should fast on that day.’ ” [Reported by al-Bukhari]
Apparently the motive for commanding the Muslims to fast on this day was the desire to be different from the Jews, so that the Muslims would fast when the Jews did not, because people do not fast on a day of celebration. [Summarized from the words of al-Hafidh Ibn Hajar,may Allah have mercy on him, in Fath al-Bari)
Fasting on ‘Ashura was a gradual step in the process of introducing fasting as a prescribed obligation in Islam. Fasting appeared in three forms. When the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, came to Madinah, he told the Muslims to fast on three days of every month and on the day of ‘Ashura, then Allah made fasting obligatory when He said (interpretation of the meaning):
” … observing the fasting is prescribed for you … “ [Al-Qur'an 2:183] [Ahkam al-Qur'an by al-Jassas, Part 1]
The obligation was transferred from the fast of ‘Ashura to the fast of Ramadhan, and this one of the proofs in the field of Usul ul-Fiqh that it is possible to abrogate a lighter duty in favour of a heavier duty.
Before the obligation of fasting ‘Ashura was abrogated, fasting on this day was obligatory, as can be seen from the clear command to observe this fast. Then it was further confirmed later on, then reaffirmed by making it a general command addressed to everybody, and once again by instructing mothers not to breastfeed their infants during this fast. It was reported from Ibn Mas’ud that when fasting Ramadhan was made obligatory, the obligation to fast ‘Ashura was lifted, i.e., it was no longer obligatory to fast on this day, but it is still desirable (mustahabb).
THE VIRTUES OF FASTING ‘ASHURA
Ibn ‘Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them both, said:
“I never saw the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, so keen to fast any day and give it priority over any other than this day, the day of ‘Ashura, and this month, meaning Ramadhan.” [Reported by al-Bukhari, 1867]
The meaning of his being keen was that he intended to fast on that day in the hope of earning the reward for doing so.
The Prophet, peace be upon him, said:
“For fasting the day of ‘Ashura, I hope that Allah will accept it as expiation for the year that went before.” [Reported by Muslim, 1976]
This is from the bounty of Allah towards us: for fasting one day He gives us expiation for the sins of a whole year. Indeed Allah is the Owner of Great Bounty.
WHICH DAY IS ‘ASHURA?
An-Nawawi, may Allah have mercy on him, said:
“‘Ashura and Tasu’a are two elongated names [the vowels are elongated] as is stated in books on the Arabic language. Our companions said: ‘Ashura is the tenth day of Muharram and Tasu’a is the ninth day. This is our opinion, and that of the majority of scholars. This is the apparent meaning of the ahadith and is what we understand from the general wording. It is also what is usually understood by scholars of the language.” [Al-Majmu']
‘Ashura is an Islamic name that was not known at the time of Jahiliyyah. [Kashshaf al-Qina', Part 2: Sawm Muharram]
Ibn Qudamah, may Allah have mercy on him, said:
“‘Ashura is the tenth day of Muharram. This is the opinion of Sa’id ibn al-Musayyib and al-Hasan. It was what was reported by Ibn ‘Abbas, who said: ‘The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, commanded us to fast ‘Ashura, the tenth day of Muharram.’ [Reported by al-Tirmidhi, who graded it a sahih hasan hadith] It was reported that Ibn ‘Abbas said: ‘The ninth,’ and reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, used to fast the ninth. [Reported by Muslim] ‘Ata reported that he said, ‘Fast the ninth and the tenth, and do not be like the Jews.’ If this is understood, we can say on this basis that it is mustahabb (encouraged) to fast on the ninth and the tenth, for that reason. This is what Ahmad said, and it is the opinion of Ishaq.”
IT IS MUSTAHABB (ENCOURAGED) TO FAST TASU’A WITH ‘ASHURA
‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them both, said:
“When the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, fasted on ‘Ashura and commanded the Muslims to fast as well, they said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, it is a day that is venerated by the Jews and Christians.’ The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said:
‘If I live to see the next year, insha’Allah, we will fast on the ninth day too.’
But it so happened that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, passed away before the next year came.” [Reported by Muslim, 1916]
Ash-Shafi’i and his companions, Ahmad, Ishaq and others said:
“It is mustahabb to fast on both the ninth and tenth days, because the Prophet, peace be upon him, fasted on the tenth, and intended to fast on the ninth.”
On this basis it may be said that there are varying degrees of fasting ‘Ashura, the least of which is to fast only on the tenth and the best of which is to fast the ninth as well. The more one fasts in Muharram, the better it is.
THE REASON WHY IT IS MUSTAHABB TO FAST ON TASU’A
An-Nawawi, may Allah have mercy on him, said:
“The scholars – our companions and others – mentioned several reasons why it is mustahabb to fast on Tasu’a:
– the intention behind it is to be different from the Jews, who only venerate the tenth day. This opinion was reported from Ibn ‘Abbas …
– the intention is to add another day’s fast to ‘Ashura. This is akin to the prohibition on fasting a Friday by itself, as was mentioned by al-Khattabi and others.
– To be on the safe side and make sure that one fasts on the tenth, in case there is some error in sighting the crescent moon at the beginning of Muharram and the ninth is in fact the tenth.”
Ibn Hajar, may Allah be pleased with him, said in his commentary on this hadith:
“What he meant by fasting on the ninth day was probably not that he would limit himself to that day, but would add it to the tenth, either to be on the safe side or to be different from the Jews and Christians, which is more likely. This is also what we can understand from some of the reports narrated by Muslim.” [Fath, 4/245]
RULING ON FASTING ONLY ON THE DAY OF ‘ASHURA
In Tuhfat al-Muhtaj by Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, it says:
“There is nothing wrong with fasting only on ‘Ashura.”
FASTING ON ‘ASHURA EVEN IF IT IS A SATURDAY OR A FRIDAY
At-Tahawi, may Allah have mercy on him, said:
“The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, allowed us to fast on ‘Ashura and urged us to do so. He did not say that if it falls on a Saturday we should not fast. This is evidence that all days of the week are included in this. In our view – and Allah knows best – it could be the case that even if this is true (that it is not allowed to fast on Saturdays), it is so that we do not venerate this day and refrain from food, drink and intercourse, as the Jews do. As for the one who fasts on a Saturday without intending to venerate it, and does not do so because the Jews regard it as blessed, then this is not makruh … ” [Mushkil al-Athar]
The author of Al-Minhaj said:
“‘It is disliked (makruh) to fast on a Friday alone … ‘ But it is no longer makruh if you add another day to it, as mentioned in thesahih report to that effect. A person may fast on a Friday if it coincides with his habitual fast, or he is fasting in fulfilment of a vow, or he is making up an obligatory fast that he has missed, as was stated in a sahih report.”
Al-Sharih said in Tuhfat al-Muhtaj:
“‘If it coincides with his habitual fast’ – i.e., such as if he fasts alternate days, and a day that he fasts happens to be a Friday. ‘If he is fasting in fulfilment of a vow, etc.’ – this also applies to fasting on days prescribed in Shari’ah, such as ‘Ashura or ‘Arafah.”
Al-Bahuti, may Allah have mercy on him, said:
“It is makruh to deliberately single out a Saturday for fasting, because of the hadith of ‘Abdullah ibn Bishr, who reported from his sister: ‘Do not fast on Saturdays except in the case of obligatory fasts’ [Reported by Ahmad with a jayyid isnad and by al-Hakim, who said it was according to the conditions of al-Bukhari], and because it is a day that is venerated by the Jews, so singling it out for fasting means being like them … except when a Friday or Saturday coincides with a day when Muslims habitually fast, such as when it coincides with the day of ‘Arafah or the day of ‘Ashura, and a person has the habit of fasting on these days, in which case it is not makruh, because a person’s habit carries some weight.” [Kashshaf al-Qina']
WHAT SHOULD BE DONE IF THERE IS CONFUSION ABOUT THE BEGINNING OF THE MONTH?
“If there is confusion about the beginning of the month, one should fast for three days, to be sure of fasting on the ninth and tenth days.” (Al-Mughni of Ibn Qudamah]
If a person does not know when Muharram began, and he wants to be sure of fasting on the tenth, he should assume that Dhul-Hijjah was thirty days – as is the usual rule – and should fast on the ninth and tenth. Whoever wants to be sure of fasting the ninth as well should fast the eight, ninth and tenth (then if Dhul-Hijjah was twenty-nine days, he can be sure of having fasted Tasu’a and ‘Ashura).
But given that fasting on ‘Ashura is mustahabb rather than wajib, people are not commanded to look for the crescent of the new moon of Muharram as they are to do in the case of Ramadhan and Shawwal.
FASTING ‘ASHURA – FOR WHAT DOES IT OFFER EXPIATION?
Imam an-Nawawi, may Allah have mercy on him, said:
“It expiates for all minor sins, i.e., it brings forgiveness of all sins except major sins.”
Then he said:
“Fasting the day of ‘Arafah expiates for two years, and the day of ‘Ashura expiates for one year. If when a person says ‘amin‘ it coincides with the ‘amin‘ of the angels, he will be forgiven all his previous sins … Each one of the things that we have mentioned will bring expiation. If there are minor sins for which expiation is needed, expiation for them will be accepted; if there are no minor sins or major sins, good deeds will be added to his account and he will be raised in status… If he had committed major sins but no minor sins, we hope that his major sins will be reduced.” (Al-Majmu’ Sharh al-Muhadhdhab]